International Society of Political Psychology

ISPP Constitution

CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY

(Ratified, August 31, 1985; amended July 2007, May 2012)

ARTICLE I. NAME

The name of this association is the International Society of Political Psychology.

ARTICLE II. PURPOSES

The Society is a nonprofit scientific, educational, and non-partisan organization with the following purposes:

  1. To establish a community of scholars and concerned individuals in universities, government, the communications media, and elsewhere, who have scientific and practical interests in examining the relationship between political and psychological phenomena;
  2. To facilitate communication of scientific research, theory, and practice across disciplinary, national, and ideological boundaries, both among members of the Society and those outside the Society;
  3. To increase the theoretical and practical significance of political psychology both inside and outside academia. Practical significance shall be guided by the principles of universal human rights;
  4. To provide mutual support among members of their freedom to generate and disseminate their findings and ideas.

ARTICLE III. POLICY POSITIONS

  1. The Society and its officers, as representatives of the Society, and members, will take positions on public issues if such positions are immediately and directly concerned with the purposes of the Society and within the limits that must be observed to maintain tax exemption under the revenue laws of the jurisdiction in which the headquarters is located. A position on a public issue is only an official position of the Society after a majority of the Governing Council vote for the position and the Governing Council's decision is affirmed by a majority of the Society's members voting in an official ballot. No member of the Society may be precluded from expressing his or her views as an individual on issues to which political psychology pertains.
  2. Members of the Society are free to set up caucuses. It is the responsibility of such caucuses to make clear that any positions or actions taken by them are not positions or actions taken by the Society. The Governing Council may, at its discretion, allow caucuses to use the facilities of the Society.

ARTICLE IV. MEETINGS

The Society shall have at least one meeting a year when its membership can gather to exchange information regarding research, theory, or the practice of political psychology and can discharge the business of the Society.

ARTICLE V. MEMBERSHIP

  1. Any person sharing the purposes of the Society and paying dues may be a member of this organization regardless of his or her academic discipline, profession, nationality, and theoretical or ideological outlook.
  2. Members who have paid dues are entitled to:
    1. Receive copies of the official publications of the Society;
    2. Attend, participate in/and vote at the annual Business Meeting of the Society;
    3. Vote in all official ballots conducted by the Society;
    4. Participate in other general activities sponsored by the Society.

ARTICLE VI. GOVERNMENT

The government of the Society shall consist of the Governing Council, the Executive Committee, the President, the President-Elect, the Past-President, three Vice-Presidents, the annual Business Meeting of members, and Society members who vote in official ballots.

ARTICLE VII. THE GOVERNING COUNCIL

  1. The Governing Council shall include the following voting members:
    1. All members of the Executive Committee;
    2. The Editors of any Society publications;
    3. The chair or chairs of the Program Committee;
    4. Fifteen members-at-large elected for three-year terms, with five of the fifteen being elected each year.
  2. In cases of disputed elections, the Governing Council shall be the judge of its own membership.
  3. The Governing Council shall meet at the time of the Annual Meeting of the Society, and once between Annual Meetings. With the approval of the Executive Committee, the President may convene other meetings of the Council.
  4. The Governing Council may establish its own rules of procedure. In the absence of a rule established by the Council, Robert's Rules of Order shall prevail. Except where specifically noted herein, decisions will be made by majority rule. In order for a decision to take effect, a quorum amounting to at least half the Council will have voted.
  5. The Governing Council, by a majority of the members at its meetings, shall:
    1. Elect the Treasurer, the Councilor and the editors of any publications of the Society, upon recommendation of the Executive Committee;
    2. Decide questions pertaining to publications of the Society;
    3. Adopt an annual budget and generally authorize expenditures of the Society;
    4. Oversee the Central office and make budgetary provisions therefor, and for any other paid officers of the Society;;
    5. Select the site of the Annual Meeting and any other general meetings of the Society, or specifically delegate authority to do so;
    6. Approve rules consistent with this Constitution for conducting the annual Business Meeting, for holding elections, and for submitting proposed amendments and resolutions to members;
    7. Consider and vote on activities designed to further the purposes of the Society.
  6. The Governing Council, by a majority vote of its entire membership, whether present or not, may remove any officer of the Society for adequate cause. The Governing Council may set up its own procedure to deal with the situation.

ARTICLE VIII. THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

  1. The Executive Committee shall consist of the following as voting members: President, President-Elect, Past-President, the three Vice-Presidents, the Treasurer, the Councilor and the Editor of Political Psychology. The head of the Central Office, titled as Executive Director, shall be a non-voting member.
  2. A meeting of the Committee may be called by the President alone, or by the Executive Director with the consent of no fewer than two members of the Committee, or by any four members of the Committee.
  3. The Executive Committee shall:
    1. Nominate to the Governing Council candidates for Editors of publications, Councilor and Treasurer. Any member of the Executive Committee under consideration for one of these positions shall not participate in these proceedings;
    2. Undertake assignments growing out of measures duly adopted by the Governing Council or at an annual Business Meeting;
    3. Assist and advise the President as he or she requests;
    4. Make decisions on behalf of the Society between meetings of the Governing Council, but must report to the Governing Council in due course and have the decisions reviewed by that body;
    5. Go over the budget prepared by the Treasurer before it is presented to the Governing Council.

ARTICLE IX. PRESIDENT

  1. The President is the Chief Executive Officer of the Society. He or she shall serve for a term of one year, beginning at the close of the second annual Business Meeting after his or her election and ending at the close of the next such meeting, and shall be ineligible at any time to succeed himself or herself as President.
  2. The President shall:
    1. Oversee and assist all other officers of the Society in the performance of their particular functions.
    2. Propose programs and policies designed to promote the purposes of the Society;
    3. Convene and preside over meetings of the Governing Council, Executive Committee, and the annual Business Meeting;
    4. Together with the Executive Director, prepare an agenda for meetings of the Governing Council, the Executive Committee, and the annual Business Meeting;
    5. With the Executive Director, oversee the work of the Central Office;
    6. With the Treasurer, oversee the handling of the Society's funds and the development of a budget for the Society;
    7. In consultation with the Executive Committee, appoint standing or special committees.

ARTICLE X. PRESIDENT-ELECT

  1. The President-Elect shall automatically succeed to the Presidency at the close of the second annual Business Meeting after his or her election.
  2. The President-Elect shall appoint the chair of the Program Committee for the Annual Meeting to be held during his or her term of office, in consultation with the Executive Committee.

ARTICLE XI. THE VICE-PRESIDENTS

  1. There shall be three Vice-Presidents, one being elected each year for three-year overlapping terms, with their terms of office beginning at the close of the first annual Business Meeting after their election.
  2. The Vice-Presidents shall be ineligible at any time to succeed themselves as Vice-President.
  3. The Vice-Presidents may be appointed by the President to chair standing or special committees (e.g., the Nominating Committee, the Program Committee, the Membership Committee).

ARTICLE XII. THE CENTRAL OFFICE

  1. The particular structure of the Central office shall be determined by the Governing Council. The head of the Central Office shall be designated the Executive Director. The Governing Council shall allocate such resources as it finds reasonable to staff and fund the activities of the Central Office.
  2. The Executive Director is the Chief Administrative Officer of the Society.
  3. The Executive Director shall:
    1. Propose policies and programs designed to promote the purposes of the Society;
    2. Administer the Central Office;
    3. Assist the President, other officers, committees, and agencies of the Society in the performance of their duties and respond in a timely fashion to their requests;
    4. See that the records and files of the Society are maintained;
    5. Perform such other duties as the President, the Executive Committee, and the Governing Council may direct;
    6. Serve as an ex-officio (i.e., non-voting) member of the Executive Committee and the Governing Council.

ARTICLE XIII. THE TREASURER

  1. The Treasurer is the Chief Financial Officer of the Society. He or she shall be elected by the Governing Council, on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, for a once-renewable five-year term of office.
  2. The Treasurer shall:
    1. In consultation with the President and Executive Director, develop an annual budget for the Society;
    2. Manage the finances of the Society, receiving and dispensing funds in accordance with the policies and programs established by the Governing Council;
    3. Report on the financial status of the Society to the Executive Committee, the Governing Council, and the annual Business Meeting.
    4. Serve as a member of the Executive Committee and the Governing Council.
  3. If the Treasurer is faced with a request for a significant expenditure of Society funds between meetings of the Governing Council that departs from the annual budget as adopted by the Governing Council, he or she shall seek authorization for the expenditure from the Executive Committee. A two-thirds vote of the Executive Committee is needed for authorization.
  4. If the Treasurer should resign before the end of his or her term of office, the President in consultation with the Executive Committee may appoint an Acting Treasurer for a specified period of time not to exceed one year.

ARTICLE XIV. THE COUNCILOR

  1. The Councilor shall be elected by the Governing Council, on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, for a once-renewable five-year term of office.
  2. The Councilor shall serve as the repository of organizational memory and as policy adviser to the President and Executive Committee, giving special attention to ways of fulfilling the Society's goals and maintaining its diversity and openness.
  3. He or she shall be a member of the Executive Committee and the Governing Council and an ex-officio (i.e., non-voting) member of the Nominating Committee.

ARTICLE XV. THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING

  1. The annual Business Meeting shall be held during the Society's Annual Meeting. All members are entitled to participate and vote at the Business Meetings they attend.
  2. The annual Business Meeting, by a simple majority of those present, shall have the power to:
    1. Receive and consider reports;
    2. Raise and discuss matters relevant to the purposes of the Society;
    3. Adopt resolutions consistent with the purposes of the Society and its Constitution provided that the proposed text of a resolution has been communicated to the Executive Director or the President at least forty-eight hours in advance of the Business Meeting. To take effect as positions of the Society, all such resolutions adopted at the Business Meeting must be submitted to the full membership of the Society in an official ballot and must be ratified by a majority of the votes cast.

ARTICLE XVI. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY

  1. The Society will be responsible for the publication of at least one journal which will contain articles examining the relationship between psychological and political phenomena and will reflect the interdisciplinary, international, and inter-professional quality of the Society.
  2. The Editor of the journal shall be elected by the Governing Council, on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, for a once-renewable five-year term of office.
  3. The Editor shall serve as a member of the Executive Committee and the Governing Council.
  4. The Editor of the journal shall manage the solicitation, receipt, review, editing, and publication of the journal.
  5. In consultation with the President and Executive Committee, the Editor shall appoint to an Editorial Board such members as he or she deems able to participate in editorial activities and the development of policy. Consideration should be given to having the Editorial Board reflect the interdisciplinary, international, and inter-professional quality of the Society.
  6. If the Editor should resign before the end of his or her term of office, the President in consultation with the Executive Committee may appoint an Acting Editor for a specified period of time not to exceed one year.
  7. The Governing Council may authorize other publications for the Society as the occasion arises and funds are available.
  8. The editorship of such other publications and policies governing the publications shall be established by the Governing Council.
ARTICLE XVII. NOMINATIONS
  1. A Nominating Committee shall be formed each year that includes the ten elected members of the Governing Council in their second and third years.
  2. The Nominating Committee will choose one of its members to serve as the Chair of the Committee.
  3. The Executive Director and the Councilor shall serve as non-voting members of the Nominating Committee.
  4. The Nominating Committee should begin its deliberations in time to present its nominations at the Annual Meeting.
  5. The Nominating Committee should consider suggestions for candidates that come from the section of previous election ballots that solicits nominations from the members of the Society.
  6. The Nominating Committee shall give careful consideration to the interdisciplinary, international, and inter-professional membership of the Society.
  7. The Nominating Committee shall nominate one candidate for President, one candidate for Vice President and ten candidates for the Governing Council.
  8. Alternatively, any member of the Society may be nominated as a candidate for elective office by petition of no less than three percent of the current Society membership.
ARTICLE XVIII. ELECTIONS
  1. Elections for President, Vice-President, and Governing Council shall be held each year in advance of the Annual Meeting of the Society.
  2. The election of officers shall take place in the following manner:
    1. An official election in which all current members of the Society are eligible to vote shall be conducted no less than two months before the Annual Meeting of the Society;
    2. The ballot shall include in alphabetical order the names of the ten candidates for the Governing Council as well as the candidate(s) for President and the candidate(s) for Vice-President;
    3. The ballot shall also include biographical statements of not more than 100 words for each candidate indicating his or her qualifications;
    4. The five candidates for Governing Council who receive the most votes shall be declared elected;
    5. If, as a result of a petition by members of the Society, more than one candidate for President or Vice-President appears on the ballot, the candidate who the receives a plurality of the votes cast for that position shall be declared elected;
    6. If the elections for President and Vice-President are uncontested, the candidates proposed by the Nominating Committee shall be declared elected.

ARTICLE XIX. AMENDMENTS

  1. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in two ways:
    1. By the Governing Council;
    2. By a petition submitted to the Executive Director and the President by at least four percent of the membership.
  2. Proposed amendments shall be submitted to all members in an official ballot not less than two months before the Annual Meeting of the Society.
  3. The ballot shall provide a short background statement to the membership regarding the rationale for the amendment.
  4. Amendments approved by two-thirds of those voting shall be declared ratified if the total number of those voting is not less than one-third of the members of the Society.

ARTICLE XX. ENACTMENT

This Constitution shall be submitted to the membership of the Society and shall be considered ratified following its approval by two-thirds of all members voting, providing the total number of those voting is not less than one-third of the Society's current membership.
 

AMENDMENTS

July 2007 Amendment to the ISPP Constitution changed the Nominating Procedures in Article XVII and the Elections Procedures in Article XVIII to as indicated in the Articles above. May 2012 Amendments to definitions of Executive Director and Central Office in various Articles and to definition of purpose in Article II.C.

 




    BY-LAWS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY

    (Ratified, May 30, 1987; revised July 2007, August 2008)

    CHAPTER I. MEMBERSHIP (relating to Art. V of the Constitution)

    1. In addition to his or her voting and other rights specified in the Constitution, each current member of the Society shall be entitled to recommend to the Governing Council the formation of special committees and the development of new projects of the Society.
    2. Any member may volunteer to be considered for membership on any Society committee.
    3. On the recommendation of the Executive Committee, the Governing Council may establish differences in dues structure, e.g. of students, retirees, people in nations with currency problems, etc. Differences in dues structure do not affect the right of all members to participate in Society activities but may affect the receipt of some Society publications.

    CHAPTER II. THE GOVERNING COUNCIL (relating to Art. VII of the Constitution)

    Activities and decisions of the Council are not subject to change by any officer or member of the Society. They may be changed only by the Council itself; or by a majority of the members of the Society in an official ballot, following a resolution passed at the annual Business Meeting; or by a separate balloting of the membership. Policy positions as indicated in Article III Article III of the Constitution require ratification by the membership in an official ballot after approval of the Governing Council.

    CHAPTER III. GOVERNING, STANDING, AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES

    1. The Governing committees are the Executive Committee, the Nominating Committee, and the Program Committee. The membership of the Executive Committee is specified in the Constitution. The procedures for choosing its appointive members are specified in Chapter V of these By-laws. The procedures for selecting the Nominating Committee and the Program Committee are specified in the Constitution.
    2. Standing committees include the Awards Committees, Membership Committee, Conference Committee (which selects the place for annual meetings and makes arrangements for local administration of these meetings), Investment Committee, Allocations Committee, and such other committees as may be necessary for conducting recurrent activities of the Society. Special (ad-hoc) committees may be established to deal with non recurrent activities.
    3. On recommendation of the Executive Committee, the Governing Council shall decide on the establishment and the disestablishment of standing and special committees.
    4. In consultation with the Executive Committee, the President shall appoint chairs of the Program and also of standing and special committees. In consultation with the Executive Committee and the President, the chairs of committees shall choose the other members of the committees they chair. [Note: Per 2007 Constitutional Amendment, President no longer appoints chair of Nominating Committee.]
    5. Special committees shall be established for a specified time period, subject to extension by the Governing Council.
    6. In accordance with Article V of the Constitution and Chapter I of these By-laws, any member of the Society may propose to any member of the Executive Committee or Governing Council the establishment of new committees or the disestablishment of existing committees. In case of dispute, the question of establishing or disestablishing non constitutional committees may be raised as a matter of business at the Annual Business Meeting.

    CHAPTER IV. THE CONDUCT OF COMMITTEES (relating to several articles of the Constitution)

    1. The agenda for meetings of the Executive Committee, the Governing Council, and the Annual Business Meeting shall be presented in advance of the sessions for which they are prepared and made available to those attending the sessions.
    2. Agenda are subject to review at the sessions for which they are prepared.
    3. Members serving on the Governing Council (including any officers of the Society, like Vice Presidents or other members of the Executive Committee) are eligible for service on standing committees but whenever possible should not constitute a majority of any committee. (E.g., on a five-person committee, no more than two should be members of the Council.)
    4. No committee which selects candidates for office or honors in the Society may nominate a member of the selection committee.

    CHAPTER V. THE SOCIETY'S SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

    1. In consultation with members of the Executive Committee and others, the chair(s) of the Program Committee shall manage the solicitation, receipt, and evaluation of proposals for inclusion in the program.
    2. In choosing the chair(s) of the Program Committee for each annual scientific meeting, the President-Elect and the Executive Committee should seek to nominate members who are particularly conscious of the goal of reflecting the diversity of our membership, as specified in Article V of the Constitution.
    3. In consultation with the Executive Committee and approval of the Governing Council, the Conference committee shall select the places where the annual scientific meetings are held.
    4. In collaboration with the Program Committee, the Conference Committee shall manage the operation of these meetings.

    CHAPTER Vl. QUORUMS

    1. For adopting and amending the Constitution
      The quorum for initially approving and subsequently changing the Constitution is one-third of the Society's current membership, but action of both kinds requires approval of two-thirds of those voting.
    2. For adopting and amending the By-laws
      1. The quorum for initially approving the By-laws is one-third of the current membership, and a majority of those voting is required for initial adoption of the By-laws.
      2. There are two stages in approving changes in the By-laws: a first reading at either the midwinter session of the Governing Council or at the session held at the Annual Meeting; and a second reading at the next Council session. A majority of the full Council must be present at both stages of changes in the By-laws and a majority of those present must approve of changes before they are adopted.
      3. One-third of the Council members present at either of the two readings may request that a Bylaw change be submitted for approval of the membership in an official ballot. In that case, brief statements for and against the proposed change shall be included. The change shall become effective if approved by a majority of no less than a third of the current membership.
    3. In the Executive Committee
      1. A quorum in the Executive Committee shall consist of half of its total membership. For decisions during meetings of the Executive Committee to take effect, a quorum must be present, and a majority agree to the decision.
      2. 2. In votes for nomination of the appointive officers (Executive Director, Editors of publications, Councilor, and Treasurer) and in votes between meetings of the Governing Council, the Constitution requires a majority vote of the full Executive Committee. [Per 1999 Constitutional Amendment]
    4. For the Governing Council and all other committees
      The quorum required for the final selection of the appointive officers by the Governing Council and for all other decisions is a simple majority of the deliberating body, unless otherwise specified in the Constitution or By-laws.

    CHAPTER VII. NOMINATION OF ELECTIVE OFFICERS

    1. Following the procedure in Article XVII of the Constitution, the chair(s) of the Nominating Committee for Elective Officers shall be chosen by the Nominating Committee from among its members. [Per 2007 Constitutional Amendment]
    2. Per Article XVII of the Constitution, the Nominating Committee shall nominate one candidate for President, one candidate for Vice President and ten candidates for the Governing Council. [Per 2007 Constitutional Amendment]
    3. In considering candidates, the Nominating Committee may interview candidates face-to-face but shall decide on them in their absence.  
    4. The Nominating Committee shall report its list of nominees to the Governing Council.
    5. Only the Governing Council may reject candidates recommended by the Nominating Committee and add candidates not recommended by it.
    6. If any nominee cannot accept the nomination, the Nominating Committee by majority vote of all its members may fill a vacancy in the list.
    7. Any member of the Nominating Committee (voting or nonvoting) may present to the Governing Council his or her objections to the nominating process or to particular nominees, and the Governing Council then shall decide on the objections.
    8. No deletions or other substitutions from the list of candidates presented by the Nominating Committee and approved by the Governing Council may be made by any officer or officers of the Society.
    9. To appear on the official ballot, the petition of any member nominated by no less than three percent of the current Society membership must be received by the Executive Director, at least four weeks before the balloting.
    10. The names of nominees for each elective office shall appear on the ballot in alphabetical order, with no indication that they were nominated by the Nominating Committee or by petition.
    11. Candidates shall be declared elected if they gain a plurality of the vote cast.
    12. If an elected officer is unable to complete his or her normal term of office, the Executive Committee may fill the vacancy pro-tem. If the Executive Committee is unable to fill the vacancy, the Governing Council may fill the vacancy at its midwinter or at the Annual Meeting, until the office is filled by the normal procedure for nominating and electing officers.

    CHAPTER VIII. SELECTION OF APPOINTIVE OFFICERS

    1. A Search Committee for appointive officers shall be established by the President, with the approval of a majority of the Executive Committee.
    2. In considering candidates to recommend to the Governing Council for the appointive offices (Executive Director, Treasurer, Editor(s), and Councilor), the Search Committee may interview candidates face-to-face but shall decide on them in their absence.
    3. Any member of the Society may propose another member as nominee for an appointive office, to any member of the Search Committee, or the Governing Council, at or before a meeting of any of these three bodies.
    4. Five members shall serve on the Search Committee. Three of these five may be former officers of the Society, but no more than two may be incumbent officers (elected or appointed, and including Council members) of the Society.
    5. The Search Committee shall present its nominations to the Executive Committee, which will then, after a majority vote the full Committee, present its nominations to the Governing Council.
    6. In accordance with the Constitution (Article VII.E.1), the decision of the Governing Council is final as to appointive officers.

    CHAPTER IX. ENDOWMENT POLICY (adopted July 8, 2008)

    1. The Society will aggregate all funds (investments, e.g., Lorwin, Erikson, and so on) into a single investment pool. This investment pool will be treated as an endowment for the benefit of the International Society of Political Psychology.
    2. An Investment Committee shall be formed and function as follows:
      1. Composition: Treasurer, Executive Director, both ex officio, and three past presidents. The selection of past presidents is to be made by the Executive Committee with the concurrence of the Governing Council. The terms of office of the past presidents are to be three, four, and five years for the first appointees and then five years thereafter. Those serving may be appointed to a second term. Retirements prior to end of term shall be replaced by the executive committee for the remainder of the term.
      2. Charge: The responsibility to oversee investments, expenses (different investments incur expenses of different sorts), determine the annual yield, review the annual audit, and report to the Governing Council and the membership the results of their activities.
      3. The Treasurer shall propose investments so as to achieve the broad policy of preservation and growth. Those investments are to be reviewed and approved by the Investment Committee on a semi-annual basis. Major changes in investment are to be reviewed by the Investment Committee and approved prior to being implemented, as also any major new addition (larger than $50,000) to the investment pool.
      4. The annual yield will be the three-year prior average growth (i.e., increase over the previous year). Fifty percent of this amount will be dedicated to covering prior commitments (e.g., awards and grants).
      5. If the annual yield exceeds those funds necessary to cover prior commitments, such excess can be used for new or expanded initiatives, at the determination of the Governing Council.
      6. Any amount of the annual yield remaining after covering prior commitments and new or expanded initiatives shall be returned to the investment fund.
      7. For the first three year period following adoption of this policy, the yield shall be defined as 4.5%.
      8. Should a financial crisis overtake the International Society of Political Psychology, the Governing Council may liquidate such portion of the investment pool as it deems necessary.
    3. Contributions to the Investment Pool
      1. The Investment pool shall begin with the existing funds (Lorwin, Sigel, Erkison, etc.). In addition annual budget surpluses shall be allocated to the investment pool.
      2. The Central Office shall retain a cash account in the amount of $20,000 beyond that necessary to cover budgeted expenses (this amount may be increased or decreased on the recommendation of the Treasurer and the concurrence of the Governing Council).
      3. New donations, gifts, or bequests may be made either for the general benefit of the International Society of Political Psychology or to support a specific extant or new proposed activity to be sustained by the yield of the investment.
      4. In the case of the latter (i.e., new activities) donors will be informed that all donations for specific activities must be accepted by a positive vote of the Governing Council endorsing the new activity. Further, the amount of the donation must be sufficient (either by itself or together with other such gifts and donations) to provide for the budgeted amount of the activity (as estimated by the Investment Committee). Further, donors must accept the following language as controlling the use of said gifts: “This gift of [amount] is to be used for the purpose of [activity] and such related activities as benefit the goals and purposes of the International Society of Political Psychology.” This clause is to ensure that if a donation for a specific purpose or activity grows beyond what is necessary to fund that activity, the surplus can be used for other purposes that benefit ISPP, and also to provide for the possibility that at some future time the activity may no longer be useful or necessary.
         

      AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

      Amendments to the Constitution and implications of other Governing Council policy decisions affecting By-Laws reflected above.